How to Identify a Spider Bite

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This survival-medicine website provides general information, not individual advice. Most scenarios assume the victim cannot get expert medical help. Please see the disclaimer.

How to Identify a Spider by Its Bite

A black widow spider, with its tell-tale red hourglass. If you feel pain when the spider bites, this is likely the culprit.

by James Hubbard, MD, MPH

I’ve seen a lot of spider bites in my day, and more often than not, the spider is never seen. Over the years I’ve developed several tricks for how to identify the spider by the bite.

There are three types of poisonous spiders in the U.S. The brown recluse is found in the southern two-thirds of the country. It likes to hide in boxes so I often wonder if it doesn’t catch an occasional ride by freight. The hobo spider likes it out west. The black widow has been found in every state but Alaska.

Here are my tips on how to identify a spider bite.

1. Evaluate the Pain

If you feel pain when the spider bites, it’s likely a black widow, whose bite is often but not always painful. You may also develop severe body aches and fever.

A brown recluse spider bite is a slight sting at best. Most of the time you feel nothing. They hide in or under boxes, under your bed sheets, in your clothes. The first you know about it is the pain that develops several minutes to hours after the bite.

A brown recluse spider bite, two months later. This is the eschar—the black, leathery, dead tissue—that can form over the wound. The photographer writes that it was surgically removed about a month after this photo.

A hobo spider’s bite feels similar to a brown recluse’s, and the pain also occurs minutes to hours after the bite.

2. Look at the Skin Damage

That’s the key to the brown recluse spider bite. You may not know when it bit you, but the bite area becomes red, blistered, or black. The area starts out small, and the redness spreads. A black spot of dead tissue develops in the middle of the redness. This dead tissue can be anything from small and superficial to deep and large—sometimes enough to warrant a skin graft when everything’s said and done. As the tissue dies, the area becomes very painful.

The hobo spider can cause skin damage, but less so than the brown recluse.

The black widow spider bite causes a red spot that’s sometimes hard to see. (More obvious: It can cause plenty of muscle aches and cramping throughout the body for one to three weeks.)

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How to Treat a Bite From a Poisonous Spider

If you can get to a doctor, do so. If you can’t, consider the following.

If you think the spider was a brown recluse or hobo:
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  1. Slow the venom’s spread: Apply ice, and keep the area at heart level or above.
  2. Prevent infection. As the black layer of dead skin (eschar) sloughs off, treat the wound as you would any other, by keeping it clean and covered and applying antibiotic ointment or honey. Some large wounds take several weeks to heal. If it starts looking infected, you’ll need oral antibiotics.
  3. Treat the pain. Take an over-the-counter pain reliever.

Some think steroids might decrease the extent of skin damage from a brown recluse bite. Sometimes skin grafts are required when the wounds are too big to heal on their own.

If you think the spider was a black widow take a pain reliever like ibuprofen or acetaminophen for the muscle cramps.

Within minutes to hours, a black widow bite can lead to severe chest and abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis or a heart attack. It can make your blood pressure go up, which may need to be treated. (Possible signs include an increased heart rate and a flushed face.) If you can’t get to a doctor, rest to try to lower the blood pressure. In worst cases, antivenin may be given.

The good news is it’s very rare to die from a spider bite.

Has anyone ever had a brown recluse, hobo, or black widow bite? How did you identify the spider type? What were the symptoms? How was it treated? How are you doing now?

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Black widow photo by Texas AgriLife Extension Service. Photo of brown recluse spider bite by Jeffrey Rowland.

  • evilekat

    I woke up itching in one certain spot, it itched like that for a few days with nothing more than some redness. After a few days 2 small blisers formed, a few days later they popped and reviled 2 puncture wounds. 2 weeks later the bite still itches and is a little red and swollen. It hasn’t gotten worse but It hasn’t gotten better either. Should I wait it out and see what happens or should I call my doc? I dont want to waste time and money just to have them tell me the bite is fine and to just come back if it gets worse or infected. What do you think?

    • http://thesurvivaldoctor.com/ James Hubbard, MD, MPH

      I can’t diagnose or treat specifically without an exam. In general, for a wound like you described. I’d be worried if the redness or swelling were getting worse, which would be a clue for infection. That could happen at any time. To prevent it, keep the wound clean, apply antibiotic ointment and a bandaid. Or any areas were black or painful. Other than treating infection with antibiotics or finding out why skin was dying (black), I’m not sure what else would be done. But, remember, I’m generalizing here. I could easily be missing something. If you have concerns, see a doctor. Also, at some point, if it hasn’t healed, you’ll need to try to find out why. Again, that’s a judgement call. Each bite is different. Obviously some are just going to take several weeks to heal no matter what you do.

  • daniel

    Hello, i was cleaning out my refrigerator today, and i was using a plastic glove and a paper towel to wipe down the shelves. i remember feeling a slight prick on my finger, and looking at my hand, but don’t recall seeing a spider. i also am not sure how soon after i felt the “bite” that i checked. anyways, i noticed after taking off the glove (about 20 min later) two dark tiny spots close together, and started having a panic attack. after about 45 min, i calmed down because i didn’t feel any physical symptoms. i don’t recall there being a red spot surrounding the dots the first time i noticed it, but 5 hrs afterwards (now), there is a small red spot and there is some slight itching but throughout my hand. i also feel a slight fever as well as my left arm is a bit warm. here is the picture, and sorry for the long story. it’s really small but the dots are in the middle part of the finger. please let me know if anyone knows anything! [email would be preferred if it's serious but i'll check here from time to time]

    thank you.

  • Tom

    8-14-14….Hello…….I was bit by something 5 days ago on 8-9-14…….I was working in the yard and something bit me on my leg….I THINK it might be a spider……I felt no pain, just itchy skin……the next day it started to blister and some pus came out…..now day 5 it is spreading and looks horrible…..no pain at all….

    what is this??????????????

    help

    Tom
    [email protected]

    • http://thesurvivaldoctor.com/ James Hubbard, MD, MPH

      Tom, I can’t diagnose individuals without an exam. If it’s getting worse with more pus, you should have a doctor check it since it might be getting infected.

  • PSN – iiAtex

    I got bit by something today on my neck, i have no clue what it was because i slapped it and shook my hand off as soon as it bit me. There was yellowish guts and stuff on my hand. I dont see the bite but it hurt like hell, and whatever bit me was big, and I believe it was a spider because we were riding fourwheelers through a trail and there were tons of different kinds of spiders

    • http://thesurvivaldoctor.com/ James Hubbard, MD, MPH

      Sounds more like a bee or yellow jacket.

      • PSN – iiAtex

        It hasnt gotten worse, but it wasnt as bad as a yellow jacket or bee. But thanks for responding

  • mother of 5

    I got bit when doing yard work and not sure what bit me, but I could see the two Phang marks.

    • http://thesurvivaldoctor.com/ James Hubbard, MD, MPH

      I’m assuming your not talking about a snake? Always wash any bite with soap and water, maybe apply a little antibiotic ointment if available.

  • need to know

    I cant post a pic so you have to go off this post and my post below

    • http://thesurvivaldoctor.com/ James Hubbard, MD, MPH

      With or without a photo, I’d have no idea without an actual exam. Just about any insect can give you a local reaction. If it’s getting larger it could be a local allergic reaction. If it’s getting larger and painful it could be getting infected. You already have my post on spider bites. And don’t forget Lyme disease http://www.thesurvivaldoctor.com/2012/04/24/tick-bites/

  • need to know

    hi I got bit and I don’t know what by it feels like there is a ring but only the bites(2) are visible if I touch them in the “ring” it hurts bad can you give me a good guess on what it might be from?

  • Fortune Hovind

    I live in michigan and have been bitten 9 times in 9years. I currently have been bitten and believe it happened while i was sleeping, but I never know what kind of spider bit me. i contracted MRSA form the first time I was bitten and am on antibiotics now. How can you tell what kind of spider bit me?

    • http://thesurvivaldoctor.com/ James Hubbard, MD, MPH

      Other than the post? Get some sticky paper and trap one. Also, MRSA can look just like a spider bite.

  • SChil5

    Hi, I have been bitten three times and my ex-boyfriend was bitten twice by a recluse spider. Come to find out they were infesting one of the trees and his back porch area. We found out the trick to preventing these bites from getting really bad is you have to get the hard plug out. It hurts like heck and is best done by a doctor. I squeezed mine out myself. I know it sounds gross, but that is where most of the venom is – deep down in that plug and that is where everything spreads out from. Once we got the plugs out, the bites started healing right away. Just don’t wait too long. Most doctors don’t know how to treat recluse bites. I live in Texas and we found a good old Texas doc that had treated many of these and he is the one who finally told us what needed to be done. He lanced my boyfriend’s bite and got the plug out and a lot of poison. gave him a good antibiotic and in a few days we could already see the difference. I’m telling you — you need to cut it open and get that plug out and preferably do it in a doctor’s office. But you have to convince them that is what to do, as most of these young doctors haven’t a clue about treating brown recluse bites.

  • Sarah Labrecque

    I got a bite five days ago two marks hurt for a few hours then nothing till today.. Now puffing up red hot.. Live in NC. Can it take this long for a brown recluse to start symptoms?

    • http://thesurvivaldoctor.com/ James Hubbard, MD, MPH

      Not that I know of. Perhaps the wound is getting infected.