Infected Finger: When It's Dangerous

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This survival-medicine website provides general information, not individual advice. Most scenarios assume the victim cannot get expert medical help. Please see the disclaimer.

How a Felon Could Make You Lose a Finger

A paronychia

This is a paronychia—an infection that stays around the fingernail. It’s not as dangerous as a felon (another type of finger infection), but it still needs proper treatment so it doesn’t get worse.

by James Hubbard, M.D., M.P.H.

If you’ve ever had a hangnail that got a little infected, you discovered you have a lot of nerve endings in your fingers. And you found out you use your hands for just about everything. Hands you’ll especially need during disasters.

Fortunately, most infected hangnails heal well as long as you keep the area dry and clean. (Gloves? Band-Aids?) But sometimes, rarely, an infected finger can get serious.

The infection can run up the finger, into your hand’s tendons, and you have a dangerous mess on your hands—literally. Or the fingertip can become so swollen that it starts cutting of the circulation, putting you in danger of losing that finger. This type of infection is called, perhaps appropriately, a felon.

Here are some tips to help you kinda know what you’re dealing with and what to do.

Paronychia: An Infection Around the Fingernail

Unless there’s a cut or scratch, most infections spring up around the cuticle, where the bacteria worked its way in. If the infection stays there—around the fingernail—it’s called a paronychia (pa-ruh-NIK-ee-uh). Who knows why? To treat a paronychia if you can’t get to a doctor:

  1. Use warm soaks on it. You can dip it in warm water or use warm, wet cloths. Do this often, for ten to twenty minutes at a time.
  2. If you’re bumping it, cover it with a adhesive bandage. Wear gloves. Splint it with a stick if you need the extra protection.
  3. Within a day of heat, it’ll either heal or come to a head, meaning the redness will localize in one corner around the nail, and a small white spot will form.
  4. Sterilize a sharp object, such as a safety pin, by holding the tip under a flame until it’s red. Or at least dip the tip in alcohol.
  5. Lightly prick the white spot. It shouldn’t hurt because you don’t stick the needle deep, just enough to let the pus out. There’s no need to stick it if there’s not that white spot. You’ll only get blood—and a risk for more infection.
  6. Apply antibiotic ointment or honey (not for babies) and an adhesive bandage.  It should be healed in another day.
  7. If this doesn’t do it, start oral antibiotics, if available.

Pretty easy stuff.

Felon: A Serious Infection in the Fingertip Pad

Rarer is the more serious felon. No, not the criminal type. This is when infection gets deep into the fingertip pad. The fingertip swells and throbs. The circulation could cut off and you could lose a finger, or the infection could spread into the hand.

To treat a felon:

  1. Get to a health-care provider if you can. Many times a felon has to be surgically opened up. The fingertip pad must be cut open to relieve the pressure. A pin’s not going to do it here.
  2. Until you can get expert treatment, start oral antibiotics.
  3. Elevate the finger about at your heart level.
  4. Warm soaks are worth a try.

Something similar to a felon is a herpetic whitlow. It’s caused by the herpes virus. As with a fever blister and genital herpes, a whitlow is recurrent and tends to cause pain and blisters, run its course, and go away. The finger pad is usually not as swollen as it is with a felon. If you catch a whitlow early, prescription antiviral medications may shorten the course.

Unless you’ve had a whitlow before, it’s going to be hard to tell the difference between that and felon. If you couldn’t get to a doctor, I’d treat it like a felon.

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Photo by Chris Craig.

  • Aliza Kessler

    I have a Paronychia on my thumb. Been on Omnicef for a week. The doctor poked a whole by the swollen area and blood came out. Ever since then,nothing has come out. My finger is still swollen. Dr said there’s probably no pus underneath. Now I am feeling pain in my hand and muscle. Dr put me on Bactrim for 5 days. Hopefully should help within a few days. Is it normal to have hand and muscle pain? Does that mean the infection spread?

    • James Hubbard, MD, MPH

      It could. Usually the hand would be tender, swollen, and red. If you have concerns that it might be, call your doctor’s office or go back in.

      • Aliza Kessler

        My hand is not tender, swollen or red. It hurts . I will keep an eye on it though and if necessary, I will call the doctor’s office

  • Jeremiah Rivera

    So i cut my finger with a razor blade (The Top of my thumb close to the nail on the first “bend”) pretty deep its been four days and its very swollen, red and pus oozing out by itself. Iv squeezed some hard push out its felt like a pimping popping when they came out (down this three times now) and they were pretty big, Should i seek medical Attention ?

    • James Hubbard, MD, MPH

      Yes, and don’t squeeze anymore.

  • Billy

    No pus , but skin pealing , swollen , with a throbbing pain . bleeding when skin cracks . Started soaking today in warm water .Thinking I would go get so antibiotic cream tomorrow . Question will this be enough or do I need Antibiotics from the Doc.

  • loo

    Help i have this and I feel sick with it and its for a funny smell

    • James Hubbard, MD, MPH

      Hopefully you read my post on what to do for a paronychia. If that doesn’t cure it you should see a doctor.

  • Darlene

    Thank you so much for this article. I followed your instructions precisely and it feels so much better. An added bonus: I did not have to make a trip to the Dr’s office!

    • James Hubbard, MD, MPH

      Glad to hear it, Darlene.

  • Brooke

    hi, I had an infection in my cuticle so I went to see a doctor and he gave me antibiotics to take but my fingers and hand on that finger and kind of sensitive to touch. is that a normal side effect of the infection going away? I’ve only been on the antibiotics for a day now

    • James Hubbard, MD, MPH

      I would think so. Hopefully it will go away in a few more days.

      • Brooke

        it is getting even more swollen today. do you know how long it would take for the medicine to kick in? or if there’s anything I should be doing on the side? I’ve been soaking my finger occasionally in hot water and I put a bandage over it

        • James Hubbard, MD, MPH

          If it’s getting worse, you should check back with your doctor. How is it doing now?

  • Christie Johnson

    I burnt my finger at work now it’s infected

    • Christie Johnson

      Here is how my finger looks it hurts bad

      • James Hubbard, MD, MPH

        If it’s not improving, you should have it checked to see if you need antibiotics.

  • John Lape


    This is my Hand from a Nail salon in MESA,ARIZONA Been to the V.A. 2 Time as I post this message Terrible PAIN one week of Antibiotics didn’t work at all …

    • James Hubbard, MD, MPH

      Hopefully you’re being follow by a doctor for this.

  • Ricky Rodriguez

    Two weeks ago, I slammed my finger between the car door. I popped it with a pin to release the blood. My finger is now swollen. Is my finger nail infected and will it fall off?

    • James Hubbard, MD, MPH

      Sorry, I’ve been off a few weeks. Hopefully you’re doing better and yeah, I’m guessing the fingernail will gradually come off. A new one should grow back.

  • Robert Braddock

    The area around cuticle is red and swolen but painless. Fingernail bordering the cuticle is also red. Just noticed this.